Functional Programming vs OOP which is better?


Functional Programming vs OOP:

In this article will learn about functional programming vs object-oriented programming and which is better than the other. So Let’s drive into both just enough to make a choice of our own.


Functional Programming:

FP is all about data manipulation, emphasizes on evaluation of function, and uses immutable data.

Immutable means when something is created, it cannot be changed.

FP also follows the declarative programming model. 

Declarative programming: Declarative programming is when you write your code in such a way that it describes what you want to do. Sets of declarations, or declarative statements, each of which has the meaning usually in the problem domain.

Imperative programming: Sequences of commands, each of which performs some action; but which may or may not have meaning in the problem domain.

As a result, an imperative style encourages the reader to learn the mechanics of what the system is doing but may give little insight into the problem that it is intended to solve. On the other hand, a declarative style helps the reader to understand the problem domain and the approach that the system takes towards the solution of the problem, but is less informative on the matter of mechanics.

Declarative programming is the picture, where imperative programming is instructions for painting that picture.

Functional Programming supports parallel programming.

Parallel programming is code that can be run simultaneously in multiple threads or processes. This allows you to optimize performance by running the code across multiple CPUs.

The primary element of functional programming is functions and variables. In FP, statements can be executed in any order. Outputs of a function in FP purely rely on arguments of the function. The function can be easily invoked and reused at any point.

Functional programming gives the advantages like efficiency, slow evaluation, nested functions, bug-free code.


Object-Oriented Programming: 

The essential building block that describes object-oriented languages is the objects and methods. Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm in which you program using objects to represent things about the real world. OOP uses mutable data. Objects can be easily reused. OOP is used when there are many things with few operations.

Object-oriented programming rests on four key principles:

  1. Abstraction (focusing on the essentials and hiding the unnecessary details)
  2. Inheritance (defining one class in terms of another)
  3. Polymorphism (combining elements to create a new entity)
  4. Encapsulation: (it allows for hiding unrelated data from users and prevents unauthorized access)

OOP follows the imperative programming model, does not support parallel programming, statements can be executed in a particular order. Loops will use for iterative data.


Functional Programming Vs Object-oriented Programming:

  • In FP, a state does not exist Vs OOP, the state exists.
  • In FP, a function is the primary manipulation unit Vs OOP, an object is the primary manipulation unit.
  • FP the main focus of programming is what we are doing Vs OOP, the main focus of programming is how we are doing.
  • FP mainly supports abstraction over data and abstraction over behavior Vs OOP mainly supports abstraction over data only.
  • FP provides high performance in processing large data for applications Vs OO programming is not good for big data processing.
  • Functional languages are good when you have a fixed set of things Vs OO languages are good when you have a fixed set of operations on things.
  • FP does not support conditional statements Vs OOP, conditional statements can be used like if-else statements and switch statements.
  • OOP is an excellent method to keep everything packaged up and secure from unwanted external usage Vs FP works well when complexity is contained.



In this summary, we noticed that OOP and functional programming are not mutually exclusive. They both have their powers, and by combining those, we can get good results, they’re more reliable than both. Finally, to achieve this, it is always up to the programmers or developers to pick the programming language concept that makes their development productive and comfortable.


Let me know your thoughts in the comments.

See you there 😊

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